Single women seeking sex Cairo

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Background: Violence against women VAW is a major global public health problem with serious consequences. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of VAW aged yr in a slum area in Helwan, Cairo, to assess their knowledge and perspective regarding VAW, and to assess their help-seeking practice in response to violence. Methods: This community based survey was carried out among women in a slum area in Helwan, Cairo, Egypt in : The prevalence of exposure to at least one type of intimate partner violence IPV was Most women exposed to IPV reported that they have never asked for healthcare upon exposure to violence.

One third had good knowledge. Most had favorable perspective against VAW. Conclusion: Most women suffered some kind of violence. They, however, did not seek help most of the time. According toWHO, violence was defines as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that either result in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation". Violence according to gender of the person on whom the violent act is implicated is called gender-based violence GBV 1.

One of the major public health problems is violence against women VAW considered a contravention of human rights. Its most common type is intimate partner violence IPV 2. The United Nations defined VAW as "any act of GBV that in or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, Single women seeking sex Cairo threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life" 3.

Victims of violence were also at double the risk of contracting suicide, substance use problems, a 1. Women are more likely to experience violence in the event that they had low level of education, had mothers being abused by way of a partner, had been abused for the duration of childhood, or had attitudes accepting violence. Only one-third of women who experienced violence since the age of 15 yr ever sought help to deal with violence 5. Most women who did not seek help thought that violence is a part of life or was ashamed of being abused 6.

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Obtaining reliable data on the extent of violence, its causes and consequences is important for the development of local action plans as well as preventive programs and services. Many cases of VAW do not come to the attention of the authorities or service providers, rendering community-based studies a vital source of information to track the nature and extent of these issues 7. Similar recommendations were reported in Alexandria, Egypt in addition to mobilizing public efforts against VAW and enhancing knowledge about gender roles in Egypt 8. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of VAW aged yr in a slum area in Helwan, Cairo, Egypt, to assess their knowledge, perspective and healthcare-seeking practice in response to VAW.

A community-based household survey was carried out from Mar until May among adult women aged yr living in Helwan, Cairo Governorate, Egypt. The researchers complied with the International Guidelines for Research Ethics.

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Informed verbal consent was obtained from all participants after explanation of the purposes and benefits of the research. Anonymity and confidentiality of information were assured and maintained. All participants had the right to participate and to withdraw from the study once it has started.

Respect of all participants was ensured. The quality and integrity of research were ensured.

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There was no conflict of Single women seeking sex Cairo. All researchers cooperated and participated in all phases of the research, reviewed all researchanalyses and interpretations. They were all involved in decision making about publication.

Helwan is a part of Grater Cairo, on the bank of the river Nile. It consists of seven geographical districts. Governmental health services in Helwan include three hospitals, two maternal and child health centers, seven separate health offices, seven health centers containing health officesfive health centers with no health offices and one clinic. The sample size was calculated using Epi Info version 7. A representative sample of households was drawn from the eight geographic districts of Helwan, taking into consideration the total size of the population in each region.

Thirty clusters were selected representing the different zones of each region using probability proportionate to size. Each cluster was composed of 30 households and all adult women aged yr who were present at the time of the interview were included. Data were collected using a predeed structured interviewing questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared guided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC assessment tools measuring violence-related attitudes, behaviors and influences among youth 9 and the assessment questionnaire used in the Egyptian Health Demographic survey 5.

The questionnaire consisted of five sections: The first included personal and demographic data age, education, residence, occupation and accessibility of healthcare services. It consisted of 10 single and multiple response questions about the meaning of violence, gender and VAW. The third section included 26 questions about the exposure to different forms of violence physical, psychological or sexual during the 12 months, their frequency and the relation with the perpetrator s intimate or non-intimate partner.

For each statement, women were asked to identify on a five-point Likert scale the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with the given situations picturing personal beliefs, cultural norms and social consequences of violent behaviors.

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The fifth section was for assessment of the healthcare-seeking behavior on exposure to violence. It included ten questions about whether women asked for healthcare after being exposed to violence and its frequency, reasons for seeking and for not seeking healthcare and the places where healthcare was sought.

For quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation were calculated. Using three stepwise logistic regression models, the magnitude of the association between different variables and the level of knowledge and perspectives of women regarding VAW and the exposure of ever-married women to VAW was estimated.

All statistical analyses were done using two-tailed tests and P -value less than 0. Nearly half Among the ever-married women, All the The prevalence of exposure to at least one type of IPV was Exposure to psychological and physical violence from an intimate partner was reported by Regarding psychological violence, about one-third of women reported being humiliated by her intimate partner, or being called names, while 7. As regards physical violence, about one in every four reported being pushed by her intimate partner, being slapped or thrown by objects.

Other less frequent forms included being hit with the fist, being grabbed by her arm, being pulled by her hair or being kicked. Being attacked by a weapon was the least commonly reported form of physical violence 1. Women recently exposed to acts of violence by a non-intimate male partner amounted to 9.

As regards type of violence, it was physical harassment in The frequency of exposure to violence was estimated Single women seeking sex Cairo women exposed to the different types of violence and who agreed to respond to the questions. Nearly one third of the women indicated that they had been exposed to psychological violence times during the last 12 months.

Regarding physical violence, nearly one-third of women indicated that this happened once. Another third were exposed to physical violence more than 10 times.

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Concerning forced sex, half of those reporting having forced sex indicated that this was for times. Regarding non-intimate partner violence, nearly half the women who reported exposure to acts of violence from a non-intimate partner were exposed to acts of violence for times during the 12 months, three quarters were exposed to physical harassment, reported being exposed only once in the 12 months, while almost half of those who reported exposure to verbal harassment indicated that this happened more than 10 times during the 12 months.

Concerning healthcare-seeking behavior, nearly two thirds Reasons for seeking healthcare included the inability to withstand violence The places where healthcare was sought included public and university hospitals The most frequently reported reasons for not seeking healthcare after exposure to violence were feeling danger on themselves Fear from the husband and from scandal were mentioned by 8. The reason for not seeking healthcare was not having money constituted only 4. About one third The knowledge score ranged from with a mean of Most women The perspective score ranged from with a mean score of Table 2 shows that higher percentages of women with fair and good knowledge were exposed to VAW nearly two thirds each compared to those with poor knowledge.

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The mean knowledge score of ever-married women was nearly equal among those exposed and those not exposed to violence with no statistically ificant difference. On the other hand, higher proportions of women with unfavorable and moderate perspectives about VAW were exposed to violence compared to those with favorable perspective. The mean perspective score was higher among ever-married women not exposed to violence Predictors of knowledge of ever-married women regarding VAW were tested using a logistic regression model. The final model included two variables; occupation and marital status.

Neither of them was statistically ificant Table 3. The first was residence. The second factor was level of education. The model correctly classified Women exposed to violence were 2. Model a: Five variables were used to build the model age, marital status, level of education, occupation and residence. Model b: Six variables were used to build the model age, marital status, level of education, occupation, residence and knowledge about VAW.

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Violence against Women in a Slum Area in Helwan, Cairo, Egypt: A Community Based Survey